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双语: 超大型水电站或将成为历史

来源:喵大翻译  时间:2018-02-18 08:18:55

​​Brazil backs away from destructive mega-dams

In early January, executives of Brazil’s Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) announced to a national newspaper, O Globo, that the country would cease building large dams on the Amazon’s rivers, news that surprised many. The executives cited the need to “respect the social desire to restrict these projects”. They acknowledged the difficulty of licensing and financing mega-dams following controversial projects, such as Belo Monte, a project on the Xingu River (a tributary of the Amazon) involving Chinese companies. Finally, they indicated that Brazil would pursue new directions to meet its energy needs, emphasising renewable power and decentralise distribution. 本月早些时候,巴西矿业与能源部的高层官员出乎很多人意料地通过巴西报纸《环球报》(O Globo)对外宣布,该国将停止在亚马逊流域修建大型水电站项目。与许多同仁一样,我们对这一消息感到高兴;而更让我们振奋的是,官员们在声明中指出,需要“尊重社会各界要求限制此类项目的诉求”。他们还承认,由于贝卢蒙蒂等水电项目饱受争议,所以大型水电站建设项目的审批和融资都十分复杂,因此,巴西将另辟蹊径,通过重点发展清洁可再生能源和分布式发电的方式来满足自身的能源需求。

This news is considered a victory for campaigners who have resisted and fought the construction of Amazon dams, particularly for those communities and organisations on the frontline. To halt a powerful dam-building juggernaut has been taken as a vindication of a decades-long struggle to defend the Amazon and all those who rely upon its irreplaceable ecosystems.表面看来,这则消息对于所有坚持与亚马逊水电站带来的灾难做斗争的人都应该是一场重大胜利,其中包括“亚马逊观察”(Amazon Watch)以及我们在巴西和全球各地的盟友,特别是一直在基层前线不懈努力的当地社区和相关组织。过去几十年来,我们一直致力于守护亚马逊雨林以及所有依靠这片不可替代的生态系统维生的人们。能够让水电站建设的巨无霸停手,这清楚地证明了我们的工作的价值。

For Chinese companies with a growing interest in Brazil's energy sector there are implications for the viability of future hydro investments. Behind China, Brazil is the second-largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world. There are several factors that led to the country’s policy shift. They include the privatisation of the state energy company Electrobras, which was involved in a corruption scandalthat undermined public support for new projects of this kind.  When MME executive secretary Paulo Pedrosa mentioned the “social desire” to act, he was referring to the public's response to the ministry's original plan for the Amazon rivers, which foresaw building dozens of large dams over the coming years.  “We are not willing to make moves that mask their costs and their risks,” said Pedrosa.这次明显的政策转向是由多个因素促成的,除了国有能源企业巴西电力公司的私有化这个因素之外,近期亚马逊水电站项目中突出的腐败现象也极大地影响了公众对此类项目的支持。还有一个因素是公众对于水电站建设项目的坚定反对。根据矿业与能源部的最初设计,未来数年要在亚马逊流域修建几十座大型水电站;但是,当巴西矿业与能源部执行秘书保罗·佩德罗萨在上述声明中含糊其辞地提到“社会诉求”时,他实际上承认了公众的反对导致该部的最初设计难以实施。佩德罗萨在声明中说,“我们不愿在没有搞清成本和风险的情况下就采取行动”,这与该部一直以来试图掩盖大型水电站项目真实影响的做法大相径庭。

In 2010, Amazon Watch joined a coalition of allies — ranging from the grassroots to the global — to fight the Belo Monte dam and its proponents. This coalition’s combined efforts sought not only to stop one emblematic project, but also to challenge a destructive development model and encourage a paradigm shift toward clean, alternative solutions. While ultimately unsuccessful at halting the mega-dam, the São Luiz do Tapajós dam (Belo Monte's successor) was halted in 2016. The announcement in January seemed to answer the public’s call for accountability and viable energy alternatives. 2010年,“亚马逊观察”与包括草根组织和全球性机构在内的众多同盟机构一道,共同对抗贝卢蒙蒂水电站项目及其支持者。我们的努力不仅是为了停止一个具有标志性意义的项目,更是要挑战一种破坏性的发展模式,鼓励向清洁发展模式的彻底转向。虽然我们最终未能如愿使星谷河和沿岸的民众免于灾难,但我们的努力在政治和财务方面给水坝建设行业造成了沉重的打击,最终致使贝卢蒙蒂水电站的后继项目圣路易斯杜塔帕若斯水电站于2016年被搁置。上周的声明不仅仅是对公众呼吁采用更加负责且可行的能源解决方案的回应,似乎更说明我们的胜利已经拓展到整个巴西亚马逊流域。

However, the credibility of the Brazilian government in these matters has been questioned. Last month, Brazil’s national energy agency ANEEL accepted viability studies for the proposed Jatoba dam on the Tapajós River, a large project with major implications for the region’s ecosystems and the wellbeing of the Munduruku indigenous people. This suggests some hydropower projects continue to move forward. 然而,我们需要结合过去和现在的经验来看待这场胜利。由于巴西政府常常言行不一,所以我们有必要对其在此类事务上的可信度提出质疑。上周,巴西国家电力局ANEEL通过了塔帕若斯河上贾托巴水电站的可行性研究——这个项目无疑会对该地区生态系统以及蒙杜鲁库原住民的福祉造成重大影响。

Meanwhile, the government’s ten-year energy plan cites the completion of studies for the São Luiz do Tapajós dam’s energy transmission lines, suggesting it will be back on the agenda in 2028. Indeed, the plan questions the government's commitment to recognise disputes around the social, environmental, and economic viability of large dams, including violations of the rights of indigenous peoples. 与此同时,政府的十年能源发展规划提出,要完成对圣路易斯杜塔帕若斯水电站输电线路的研究,这预示着该项目将在2028年再一次被提上巴西发展日程。这一计划表明,巴西当局仍然拒绝承认大型水电站项目在社会、环境和经济性等方面的争议,包括其对于原住民权益的侵犯。这些喜忧参半的信号表明,所有努力捍卫人权、保护巴西亚马逊流域和森林的有识之士们仍然不能放松警惕。

It is important to note that Brazilian energy planners no longer benefit from the deep pockets of the state development bank (BNDES) which previously provided subsidised loans that covered up to 80% of mega-dam budgets. Now mired in economic crisis, the Brazilian government is increasingly seeking Chinese investment in infrastructure projects, as in the case of the China Three Gorges (CTG) Corporation’s involvement in the São Manoel Dam on the Teles Pires River. The company’s 33.3% stake in this controversial project should not be seen in isolation, but rather as part of a growing trend of Chinese corporate and financial involvement in Brazil’s development trajectory.


China invested US$8.5 billion in Brazil in 2017, representing 35% of all foreign investment into Brazil that year. Investment has been concentrated in energy, infrastructure, and agriculture industries.  Chinese finance, therefore, has significant and growing influence in Brazil, particularly in commodity sectors, such as soy. As logistical bottlenecks routinely delay and increase the cost of Brazil’s soy exports from Amazonian ports, infrastructure planners envision corridors including dams, waterways, and railroads that will facilitate commodity exports at great cost to the region’s ecosystems. 2017年,中国对巴投资总额达到85亿美元,为 2010年以来最多的一年。中国的投资主要集中在能源、基础设施以及农业领域。2017年,中国投资占巴西吸引外资总额的35%,中资在巴西的影响力很大并且与日俱增,特别是在那些对于中国进口巴西商品(比如大豆)具有战略意义的行业。受制于运输瓶颈,由亚马逊港口输出的巴西大豆往往不仅耗时长,并且成本高。因此,基础设施规划者希望深入这一地区的森林和河流,建成一个由水坝、航道和铁路构成的交通走廊。

With controlling shares in leading Brazilian energy companies, Chinese investors could be positioning themselves to bring new Amazon dam and associated waterway projects to life. Given the aforementioned role of CTG in damming the Teles Pires River, as well as the Chinese company State Grid’s construction of Belo Monte’s energy transmission lines, there are indications that more such projects are in the pipeline. In the context of rising investments it will be hard for the Brazilian energy ministry to keep its promise to cut damming on the Amazon. 通过控制巴西能源企业股权和直接收购,中国投资者可以激活新的亚马逊水坝和相关航道建设项目。鉴于前文所述中国三峡集团在特莱斯皮雷斯河水坝项目中扮演的角色,以及中国国家电网参与建设贝卢蒙蒂输电线项目这一情况,有迹象表明未来还会有更多项目出台。因此,我们必须从两方面看待目前的形势:一方面,巴西政府官员的声明是令人振奋的,但另一方面,中国投资者有可能推动矿业与能源部重启他们表面上正在废除的项目。

This month’s announcement should be celebrated as a tentative victory, albeit a fragile one that demands vigilance as Brazil continues to weather political and financial instability. With presidential elections scheduled for the end of the year, a new administration could honor or abandon the MME’s proposals.巴西政府本月的声明应该算是一个阶段性的胜利,但是,在巴西政治局势和财政状况持续不稳的情况下,这个胜利是脆弱的,需要我们继续保持警惕。今年年末即将举行总统大选,新一届政府有可能继续推行,也有可能推翻矿业与能源部的提案。如果是后一种情况,那将再次威胁到亚马逊未来的稳定。只有我们坚持要求新政府继续兑现现任政府的承诺,这一胜利才会真正成为现实。而这场胜利要归功于长期奋斗在一线现场的伙伴们,以及他们代表我们为保卫这片赋予我们生命的森林所做出的一切。​​​​